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No hour of life is wasted that is spent in the saddle. ~Winston Churchill

Horse Breeds




A - Horse Breeds

The Abyssinian is found in Ethiopia and is a pony/light horse breed. There is a great deal of variability in it coloration, size and conformation.

Akhal Teke
The Akhal Teke is an ancient Turkmene horse from Asia where it was used by nomadic tribes and used as a war horse. The Akhal Teke's amazing stamina was demonstrated in an endurance ride across 2,600 miles from Ashkhabad to Moscow over 84 days, including 3 days traveling across the desert without water.¹

Albanian The Albanian is a small horse belonging to the Balkan group There are two types of Albanian horse. The Mountain and the Plains the plains is the larger standing at 13.2 hands the mountain type stand about 12.2. The Albanian is known for its freedom of movement, agility in hard terrain, and endurance. The plains is good for long distance, and is very strong for its size The Albanian are hardy horses often used for carriages as well as for riding and light draft.

Altai In the typical native Altai the head is average in length, large and somewhat coarse; the neck is fleshy; the back is long and slightly dipped; the croup is well developed, the legs are short and properly set. Occasional defects in conformation include sloping pasterns and bowed hocks. The average measurements (in cm) are: stallions - height at withers 147, chest girth 170, cannon bone girth 19; mares: 142, 170 and 18,5 respectively. The colors are chestnut, bay, black and grey, sometimes chupardy spotted.

American Bashkir Curly Horse
The American Bashkir Curly has recently been imported to Britain. It is a very sensible horse and very affectionate. The coat is Hypo allergenic allowing most people with horse allergies to be around them with little or no effect.

American Cream Draft
The American Cream Draft horse is classified as a medium-heavy draft type. The average weight of mares being 1600 to 1800 pounds at maturity. Stallions will weigh from 1800 pounds to a ton. They will stand 15 to 16.3 hands. We find this size most desirable for those harnessing, hitching, and driving these easily trained, good disposition, willing to work, Cream of Draft Horses today .

American Creme and White
American Creme and white Being a color breed conformation in the American White and American Creme will vary according to each individual's bloodlines. Those descendants of the foundation sire, Old King, continue to follow the conformation listed earlier, with one exception: the height requirements allow for shorter horses. Many are in the 14h - 14.2h range now. The American White, regardless of breeding, must have pink skin and truly white coloring ... no slight pigmentation of hair allowed. A few, small scattered spots are permissible (Usually found around eye, chest, and on genital areas, but only on skin, not on hair, these spots frequently are not exhibited until the foal approaches 18 months in age.).

American Paint Horse
The Paint Horse is descended from Spanish horses brought to the US and was popular with the American Indians as a war horse. The American Paint Horse is not strictly a breed but to qualify as a Paint Horse, horses must come from Quarter Horse, US Thoroughbred, or Paint Horse breeding.¹

American Saddlebred
The American Saddlebred was developed in Kentucky in the 19th Century by plantation owners who desired a horse which was both comfortable to ride and of superior looks. Its origins go back to the importation of the Old English Ambler (now extinct) and the English Thoroughbred. The American Saddlebred Horse Association Inc was formed in 1891 and was the first horse breed registry in the USA.¹

American Walking Pony

The foundation cross that produced the American Walking Pony was the Reg. Tennessee Walking Horse and the Reg. Welsh Pony. The Walking Horse contributed the smooth saddle gait and the Welsh, the lovely head and long arched neck. Ponies of various bloodlines of this cross were accepted for registration.

Andalusian horses originated in the Iberian Peninsula in the region of Andalusia. The Romans and Greek valued this breed greatly, and it is often found in ancient paintings depicting it as a warhorse, some of which have been dated as being over 20,000 years old.¹

Found in the region of Ilia in Greece the Andravida is a light riding and draft breed. Developed in the early 20th century from Anglo-Norman crossed with local breeds. Nonius stallions were used after 1920. The herdbook was established in 1995. The breed is nearly extinct.

Mixing the Arabian with the English Thoroughbred horse breeds produces the Anglo Arab horse. The Anglo Arab horse breed is a favourite in Europe and they are selectively bred in France and the Janow stud in Poland. They are now almost exclusively known as a sport horse. The Anglo Arab has also been instrumental in the Selle Francais horse breed.

This breed was created in the northern regions of Caucasus in Russia by crossing Kabarda mares with Thoroughbred stallions at the Malokarachaevski and Malkin studs. the bay stallions Lestorik (1939) and Lukki (1939) and the dark bay stallion Lok-Sen (1923) were of particular importance in development of the breed. The Thoroughbred breeding comprises from 25 to 75 percent in the present day Anglo-Kabarda breed. Anglo-Kabarda horses are well suited to the climate of the Caucasus, thriving at pasture the year round and are able to negotiate difficult mountain terrain skillfully. At the same time, they are much larger and faster than the purebred Kabarda, and the conformation is more like that of the Thoroughbred.

The Appaloosa horse is a very ancient breed, and is depicted in cave paintings as far back as prehistoric times. Originally they existed in Persia, China and Egypt, and were later bred in Spain and developed into a riding horse. After being taken to Mexico in the 16th Century they then spread across North America.¹

The Arappaloosa is a horse of great quality. with color, elegance, ability, and stamina The Arappaloosa has the color, good temperament and personality of the Appaloosa. With the refined bloodlines and color of the Arabs
The Arabian horse originates from the deserts of Asia and the most famous are the horses of the Bedouin Arabs, often known as the Elite Arab. These horses were used as a cavalry horse by the Moslems and taken to North Africa, Spain and France. They were left behind when the Moslems left these lands and were free to breed with local horses, resulting in many new breeds such as the Andalusian.¹

Ardennes The heavy horse of the Ardennes region of France, and Belgium Has to be the doyen of the European heavy breeds.
Head: low flat forehead and slightly prominent eye sockets. The neck is heavy muscular and arched
Feet: the feet are small though strong and well formed
Body: the bone structure is enormous the girth is deep The withers are on line or lower than the croup Limbs: very short and very strong and heavily feathered
Back: Short Color: Roan, Red-Roan, Iron-grey, Dark Chestnut, and Bay And palomino
Height: Between 15-16 hands
Argentine Criollo
The Argentine Criollo is a light riding horse found in Argentina and Uruguay. They are of the Criollo type and were revived in the period from 1875 to 1890.

The Asturian pony has a small although sometimes rather heavy head, with a straight profile.
Australian Brumby
This is a breed of wild horses in Australia. Once domestic horses that either escaped or were abandoned around 1851.

Australian Stock Horse
As Australia developed rapidly with the exploration following the 1830's, knowledgeable horse breeders imported a steady stream of Thoroughbreds to improve the local horse strains. The use of Thoroughbred stallions over the condition-hardened local mares produced the beautiful strain of tough but stylish animal exemplified by today's Australian Stock Horse.

Avelignese Pony Horse
Bred for more than 3000 years in Turkmenistan (a desert region north of Iran) and raised to withstand extreme desert conditions, it is a tough, hardy horse ideal for endurance riding.

The Azteca horse was the first breed developed in Mexico, and was the result of crossing Andalusians with quarter horses and criollos. the native Indians used them for hunting buffalo and fighting wars, and they became prized possessions.

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B - Horse Breeds

The Balearic originated in Spain on the Island of Majorca. It is used mainly for a riding pony and stands 14 h.h.

Bali Pony
Researchers at the beginning of the twentieth century attempted to trace the origins of these small horses and believed that they descended from the horses of Mongolia and western Asia.

The Baluchi horse is found in parts of Baluchistan and Sind Provinces and districts of Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh and Multan in Punjab Province. The color varies from bay, chestnut or gray. They are used for pleasure riding, tent pegging and for pulling 'tongas'. They are medium sized with a fine head, long neck, pointed ear tips touching each other, and the legs are fine and strong. In Pakistan, most of the horses are light in build and larger than ponies. Reminiscent of the Kathiawari of India, the Baluchi has very turned-in ears. Reports have stated that the Baluchi horse is related to the West African Barb through horses of Mali known as Beledougou, or Banamba.

The Banker Pony stands about 14 hands and is a semi-feral breed that originated on the Outer Bank Islands of North Carolina, including Shackleford Island which is only nine miles long. They are thought originated from Spanish horses since the 16th century.

The Ban-ei race horse originated in Japan. Its main use is for racing. It is a heavy, draft type bred for Ban-ei Keiba race in which the horse pulls a heavy sledge. It originated from the Percheron and Breton. It stands 14.3 to 16.1 h.h.

The Barb is a light riding horse which originated in the Maghreb region of northern Africa. There are several varieties including Algerian, Moroccan and Tunisian. This is the foundation breed of the West African Barb and the Spanish Barb which was developed in the United States. The Barb is speedy over a short distance and is well known for it's unpredictable temper.

The Bashkir is a small, wide-bodied and bony horse. It has a massive head and a short and fleshy neck. The withers are low, the back erect and broad, the croup nicely rounded, the ribs long and well sprung, the chest broad and deep and the legs short and bony. The mane and tail are thick.

Bashkir Curly
In recent years the Bashkir Curly has performed well in a wide range of equestrian events including Barrel Racing, Pole Bending, Western Riding, Reining, Gymkhana Events, Hunter, Jumper, Roping, English Equitation, Western Pleasure, Gaited Pleasure, Competitive and Endurance Trail Riding, Dressage and Driving.

Basuto Pony
The Basuto Pony is found in Lesotho, which is an enclave of South Africa. It is used for exclusively for riding and only cattle are used for Draught purposes.

The Belgian horse is a heavy, powerful horse, native to the fertile pastures of Belgium. These were horses that carried knights into battle in medieval Europe. They provided the genetic material from which nearly all the modern draft breeds originated.¹

Belgian Draught Horse (Brabant)
The Belgian Draught horse - or Brabant - is one of the oldest of the Draught horse breeds. They have earned a reputation as strong and willing work horses.

Bhirum Pony

The Bhirum Pony is a dwarf breed found in the northern regions of Nigeria.

Bhotia Pony
The Bhotia Pony is found in Nepal, Bhutan and the Sikkim and Darjeeling regions of India. They are a riding and pack animal, similar to the Tibetan Pony but less broad. They are most often white (gray) or bay in coloration.

Black Forest
(Also Known By: Black Forest, Schwarzwälder Kaltblut, St. Märgener, Wälderpferd)
This horse originated in the Black Forest in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It's a small, hardy draft horse which is suitable for the highlands with its long winters. It looks like a big Haflinger or a little Noriker. Selected for work in farming and forest in hilly regions. Nowadays it is also often used as coach horse and for riding. It is nimble and lively, has a good character, high fertility and is long-lived. The color, which is a part of the name, is mostly sorrel with light mane and tail, most popular is the dark silver dapple.

The history of the Boer horse is as old as the history of the white civilization in Southern Africa. The growth and development of the breed were parallel and inseparably connected to the history of the white settlers.

The Breton horse originated in France. It is used for heavy draft and farm work. It stands 15 to 16 h.h.

The Buckskin is thought to of originated from the Spanish Sorraia. The Norwegian Dun, found today in Norway and other Scandinavian countries is a breed so old that his actual origin is lost in antiquity. However, there are many indications that even he obtained his Dun Coloring from the horses of Spain. The blood of the Sorraia (and the Norwegian Dun as well) filtered into nearly every breed found in the world today, hence the fact that the Buckskin, Dun or Grulla may be found in nearly every breed.

The Budenny, pronounced "bood-YAW-knee" (and, depending on translation from the Russian also spelled Budyonny or, less commonly, Budonny or Budennovsky) horse is one of Russia's most popular and versatile native warmblood sport horses.

The Boulonnais is said to descend from the horses imported by Julius Caesar's legions, which stayed along the coasts of the Pas-de-Calais before invading what is now Great Britain. Much later came the Crusades and the Spanish occupation of Flanders. These events brought a great deal of Oriental and Andalusian blood to the Boulonnais area. Additional crosses with Andalusian stock and Mecklenburg blood from Germany further shaped the breed.

This breed has certainly developed over time. During the Middle Ages, there were two strains; the Sommier Breton and the Rossier. At the end of the 19th century, another development called the Draught Breton.

Byelorussian Harness
The Byelorussian Harness breed was formed on the basis of the native northern forest type horses improved by the Dole (from Norway), Ardennes and Brabancon breeds. The Dole influence was the strongest.

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C - Horse Breeds

These ponies live in a harsh climate in the Rhone delta of southern France. They are able to survive on salty reeds and rough grass.

The Campolina breed was formed in Entre Rios de Minas, Minas Gerais in Brazil. The breed was developed by Cassiano Campolina on his farm Fazenda Tamque. Mr. Campolina began his horse operation in 1857, however most people agree that the real development of the breed is 1870 when he received a black mare named "Medéia" from a friend. This mare was Brazilian ( Barb Blood) and was breed by a pure Andalusian stallion belonging to Mariano Procópio who had received it as a present of the emperor Dom Pedro II. Medéia gave birth to a beautiful dark gray colt, a half blood Andalusian, named "Monarca" considered the founder of the Campolina breed. He served during 25 years in the herd of "Fazenda Tanque". Since the beginning, Cassiano Campolina concentrated his work of selection and genetic improvement in obtaining animals of great brio and smooth gait.

The Canadian Horse or Le Cheval Canadien originated from horses sent to Quebec by King Louis XIV in the late 1600's. These horses, the best from the King's stable, were of French Norman, Breton, Arab, Andalusian and Spanish Barb descent.

The Carthusian originated in Spain. It is also known as the Carthusian-Andalusian, and Carthujano. It is used for riding and is 15.2 h.h. The Carthusian is not a separate breed from the Andalusian, but is a distinct side branch of that breed and usually considered the purest strain remaining. This is one of Spain's most prestigious lines of the Spanish horse and has one of the oldest stud books in the world.

The Caspian is perhaps the most ancient of breeds, and is believed to have been extinct for over 1000 years before 1965. The Caspian is probably the most direct ancestor of all light horse breeds and is extremely rare.¹

Small and stocky, the Cayuse Indian Pony has high withers and an unusually long canon bone. In addition, its distinctly sloped pastern gives it a broken walking gait. Any rider, especially younger children, will find this an extremely pleasant and easy seat.

The Cheju originated in Korea from the Cheju Province. It is used for riding and light draft and stands 11 h.h. The Cheju island is off the southern coast of South Korea. 

Chilean Corralero
The Chilean Corralero has its origins in the Spanish horse. Spanish horses arrived with the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia (1541). These horses were obtained from southern Peru (they arrived there with Francisico Pizarro in 1514). In 1557 Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, the new governor, arrived in Chile with 42 horses of the famous caste of the Guzmanes and Valenzuelas, marking the beginning of the Chilean horse breed.

Chincoteague Pony
Shetland and Welsh pony blood has been introduced to improve these two little known breeds. The ponies are feral and their numbers are carefully maintained as a sustainable level.

Cleveland Bay
The Cleveland Bay is probably the oldest British breed, developed from a packhorse known as the Chapman horse. In the 17th century, Andalusian and Barb blood was introduced to produce a fine carriage horse - named the Cleveland Bay. Motorized transport saw the breed decline, but when crossed with the thoroughbred, the breed produces excellent heavyweight hunters and carriage horses.

The Clydesdale horse has its origins from Flemish stallions from Belgium which were imported into Scotland in the 18th century and bred with native draught horses for agricultural work and the coal mining industry. In the 19th century Clydesdale horses were exported to Australia and New Zealand.¹

Colorado Ranger Horse
There are many different coat colorings for this breed, many of which are spotted. These horses have gentle dispositions, making first-class riding animals and often working with cows on ranches.

Comtois Horse
This breed is thought to have existed since the fourth century. This breed has short, sturdy legs making them ideal for rough terrain.

Connemara Pony
Ireland's only native pony is elegant, intelligent and probably the best performance pony breed. Their original breeding is lost in history, but it may owe much to Barb and Spanish horss introduced in the 6th century BC. In the late 19th century, Welsh blood was introduced, as was thoroughbred and hackney. The Connemera Pony Breeders' Society was set up in 1923.

This intelligent horse is primarily a cattle horse in Argentina. Descended from the Barb and Andalusian horses of the 16th century Conquistadores, generations of exposure on the pampas have made it one of the hardiest horses. Crossed with the thoroughbred, it produces an outstanding type for polo.

The Crioulo is from Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It is a variety of Criollo or native horse of the region.

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D - Horse Breeds

Dales Pony
Similiar to the Fell pony. This breed can carry huge amounts of weight. Used for carrying loads of lead ore from mines. Today, they can be found in both riding and driving.

Danish Warmblood
One of the more recent of the selectively bred European competition horses is the Danish Warmblood, whose stud-book was not opened until the 1960s. In a relatively short space of time, however, Danish breeders have succeeded in producing a competition horse of superior quality and more versatility than many of the European breeds.

The Danube is a light riding and draft horse found in Bulgaria. The originated during the 1920's from crossing the Nonius, Pleven, halfbred riding and local breeds with Russian Trotter and Thoroughbred breeding. They are usually black or bay.

Dartmoor Pony
The Dartmoor has been influenced by many breeds over the centuries and was once used by miners to carry tin down from the moors. It is hardy and surefooted, and its build and temperament make it an ideal child's first pony.

This breed of oriental saddle horses was formed in Kazakh, Akstafa and Tauz regions of Azerbaijan and adjacent areas of Georgia and Armenia. Some earlier publications described it as the "Kazakh" horse of Azerbaijan or as the Azerbaijan horse.

The Djerma is found in middle Niger in western Africa. It is a light horse breed which is predominately dark in coloration. The Djerma originated from the Barb and Dongola breeds.

(Also Known By: Dølehest (Norway), Døle-Gudbrandsdal, Gudbrandsdal)
This breed originated in the Gudbrandsdal Valley which connects the Oslo region with the North Sea coast. It is likely that the Friesian played a part in the breeding of the Døle due to the similarity between the two. The Friesians traded heavily with Britain, Norway and the Rhine Delta during the period from 400 to 800 A.D.

The Dongola is a light horse found in northern Sudan and western Eritrea. The breed is reddish-bay and often has a white face-blaze and feet. The West African Dongola and Sudanese Country Bred were developed from the Dongola. The breed is rare.

Dülmen Pony
The Dülmen Pony is a riding horse found in the region of Germany surrounding Münsterland, Westphalia. They are found in all colors and originated from the semi-feral herd found on the Duke of Croy's estate at Meerfelder Brunch.

Dutch Draft
The Dutch Draft horse originated in Holland. It used for heavy draft and farm work. The average height is 16 h.h.

Dutch Warmblood
The Dutch Warmblood is a modern sport horse derived from the selective breeding of German, French, and English horses crossed with the native Dutch stock. Dutch Warmblood horses, are famous for their character, soundness and athletic ability and are exported to all corners of the globe. Many are international winners under the flags of many different nations in international competitions and Olympic Games.

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E - Horse Breeds

East Bulgarian
The East Bulgarian is a light riding and draft horse, usually chestnut, bay or black. They have originated since 1900 from Thoroughbred and English Halfbred crossed with Anglo-Arab, Arab and Bulgarian Native horses.

The Egyptian is a light riding horse of the Arab type found in Egypt. The herdbook for the breed was formed in 1900.

Eriskay Pony
The Eriskay Pony is the only surviving variety of Hebridean pony and are found on the Hebrides islands off the coast of Scotland. They originated from the Celtic type with no imported bloodlines. The Eriskay pony is almost extinct.

Estonian Native
(Also Known by: Mestnaya estonskaya, Estonskaya loshad, Estonian Klepper, Estonian Pony)
The Estonian Native is one of the few breeds which has retained the characteristic features of the native northern horse and were not significantly influenced by crossing with other breeds. It played an important role in the formation of the Obva (now extinct) and Vyatka breeds. The breed has also been used with the Hackney in the formation of the Tori breed and with Ardennes in forming the Estonian Draft.

Exmoor Pony
The Exmoor pony is the oldest and purist of the British native pony breeds. The ponies have roamed the bleak, open moors of southwestern England, known as Exmoor, for centuries.

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F - Horse Breeds

Faeroes Pony
The horses found on the Faeroe Islands are one of the oldest and purest breeds of horses found today. They are comparable with the Icelandic Pony in that they also are of ancient origin and have been bred pure, at least in part, due to isolated conditions.

The origin of the Falabella horse is intimately linked to the origins of the horse in Latin America. The Andalusian horses that the Spaniards brought with them to accomplish the enormous task of the conquest, chosen for their rusticity and resistance, were later left to survive on their own due to unsuccessful attempts to conquer the area's human inhabitants.

Fell Pony
The Fell pony is renowned for its strength - when used for carting lead , on the western side of the Pennines, it was reputedly carried daily loads of 220 lb for up to 30 miles.

Finnish Draught
The Finnish Draught has a fast-stepping stride and is well-suited to hard agricultural work.

A descendant of the northern European domestic horse, the Finnhorse belongs to the general horse breeds, having both warmblood and heavier draft blood influence. The breed is also called the Finnish Universal because it is said to fulfill all needs for horses in Finland from draft to speedy trotting races to riding.

The Fleuve is found in Senegal in western Africa. It is a light horse breed which was developed by crossing Barb with the local pony breed. The Fleuve is the origin of the Fouta breed.

Florida Cracker
(Seminole Pony, Chickasaw Pony, Florida Horse, Florida Cow-Pony) The Crackers take their name from the whip "crackers" who herded and penned wily Spanish cattle, this breed developed in Florida primarily as cow ponies. Similar in heritage and size to Paso Finos, etc., many Crackers have a running walk or a single foot rack.

The Fouta is a light horse breed found in Senegal in western Africa. It is a composite breed of Fleuve and M'Bayar.

The Frederiksborg is the oldest horse breed in Denmark, and can be traced back to the horses of the royal stud at Frederiksborg. In its prime, this was one of the finest studs in Europe. During the eighteenth century the Frederiksborg was one of the world's most famous horse breeds. The breed was highly valued as a good school horse, reliable and elegant. It also made a high-class carriage horse and military charger. Frederiksborg horses were used to form or improve other breeds through the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

French Saddlebred
Developed in the 1950's from halfbreds, including Anglo-Norman and its derivatives Charentais, Charolais, Vendeen and also Corlais, the French Saddlebred is a light riding horse found throughout France.

French Trotter
The French Trotter originated in the 20th century from the Norman Coach Horse with Thoroughbred, Hackney and American Trotter bloodlines included. They are found in the Normandy region of France.

The Friesian horse is unique, truly a breed to be proud of. It developed from a very old breed which was inherent to all of western Europe. It's the only horse native to Holland. Historically speaking, the Friesian horse has been influenced by eastern bloodlines and has often been threatened with extinction. Thanks to the single-mindedness and dauntless dedication of true horse lovers, one can still appreciate the many facets of the Friesian horse today. The Friesian is of of the oldest European breeds, and has been used for many tasks including farm work and cavalry use. The Friesian was almost extinct after World War I but was revived during World War II when motorizes vehicles were in short supply.¹

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G - Horse Breeds

The Galiceño was introduced to the United States in 1958 making it relatively new. The Galiceño has been in the New World since the Spanish conquistadors brought horses to the continent in the early sixteenth century. The Galiceño descended from the Galician of northern Spain and the Garrano of Portugal. It was among the first sixteen horses landed by Hernando Cortes when he invaded Mexico from Cuba in 1519.

Galician Pony
Also Known By: Faca galizana, Jaca gallega, Poney gallego, Poni galaga
The Galician Pony is found in Galicia, in the northwest of Spain. This is a region with a very wet climate and numerous low mountains. This breed is used for meat production and for riding. Its size is between that of a pony and a normal horse. These animals are very rugged and hardy. A herdbook was formed in 1994. This breed was used in the development of the Galiceño.

The Gelderland's varied genetic heritage is evident in its appearance. Although warm-blooded, the nose is frequently convex (Roman) and the head is plain. It has a medium-sized neck and rather long back. The tail is set quite high. This breed has good shoulders, generous quarters, and clean legs. It stands between 15.2 and 16 hands. The most common colors are chestnut and gray, with frequent white markings on the face and legs.

German Warmblood
Germany has some of the best competition horses in the world and one important factor was the foundation of the state stud at Celle, in 1735, which provided local people with the services of good stallions at affordable fees. Most of the horses were bred originally for agricultural and carriage use; from the early-mid 20th century, more thoroughbred blood has been introduced to develop types more suited to the leisure and competition rider. The state has taken an active role to the current day in ensuring the quality of breeding stallions which face veterinary inspection before licensing, followed by ridden performance tests.

The modern Gidran is a high quality riding and driving horse who have achieved recognition in international competitions. Particularly well known for their athletic ability, well-balanced temperaments, and sturdy builds. Gidrans excel in FEI disciplines where the breeds speed, endurance, agility, and courage are showcased. The Gidran is an endangered breed with only 200 left in the world.

Golden American Saddlebred
Officially the Golden Saddlebred color was infused in the American Saddlebred Horse Association through a horse by the name of Pat Cleburne, who was foaled in 1864. In the Palomino Horse Breeders of America, the first golden Saddlebred registered was Pot O’ Gold, later known as Richardson’s Pot O’ Gold. This horse was foaled in 1939 and was bred by S.A. Clift of Waxahachie, TX, and registered with the ASHA as Clift’s Pride.
The herd of ponies at Lojsta moor on the island of Gotland is unique. The Gotland pony, or Russ, as it is called in Sweden, has been called a living relic of the past, and that is precisely what it is. Thanks to decisive intervention on the part of the local inhabitants, Sweden's most primordial horses still live as they have for thousands of years on the wooded moors of Gotland.

The Groningen originated in the Netherlands during the late 1800's from Oldenburg horses bred to the local draft breeds. The breed almost was lost in the 1970's as most of the animals were obsorbed into the Dutch Warmblood breed. At that time only a single purebred stallion remained. Oldenburg blood has been used to reduce the inbreeding during the reestablishment of the breed.

The Guangxi pony is distributed in the Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. It is even smaller than the Jianchang and Lijiang, with a wither height of about 100 cm, the lowest being 86 cm, as observed in a survey conducted at Jingxi.

Gypsy Vanner
The Gypsy Vanner Horse was bred to pull the colorful gypsy caravans of England. The breed is half a century old, and was developed from a combination of Freisian, Clydesdale, Shire, and Dales pony blood.

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H - Horse Breeds

The Hackney has roots in the Norfolk and Yorkshire Trotters, and also Arabian and Thoroughbred horses. Bred for carriage pulling, the horse was later bred with ponies to create the Hackney pony.¹

The Haflinger is a small horse that originates from Austria. The name Haflinger comes from the village of Hafling, which is actually now in Italy. The Haflinger came to North America in 1958.¹

Developed from the Holstein and imported Trakehners and English horses, particularly the Thoroughbred.

The Hequ is found in the Qinghai Province of China and is used as a pack and draft animal as well as for riding and racing. Hequ means "river zig". The breed originated in the border area of Qinghai, Sichuan and Gansu provinces where the Yellow River makes a large "zig". Prior to 1954 the breed was known as Nanfan which is often misapplied to the Tibetan horse. During the T'ang dynasty the Hequ horse was a favored spoil of war in the region.

Highland Pony
Originally, there were two strains. The mainland pony called the Garron (at around 14.2) and a smaller strain from the Western Isles. Cross breeding has standardised the breed.

Generally called Do-san-ko in Japan as a term of endearment, the Hokkaido Washu horse is an old breed. The Hokkaido Washu horse is thought to have been brought during the Edo era (1600-1867) to Hokkaido by fishermen. These original importation came from Honshu.

The Holsteiner is the product of a 750-year-long breeding program in Germany, providing valuable characteristics for both farmers and the military. The Holsteiner developed into one of the great German sporting horses, particularly suited for jumping, dressage, driving and eventing. Known for its kind temperament and willingness to work.¹

One of the oldest breeds of native ponies in Europe. This breed resembles the Tarpan horse. A versatile pony used for riding, driving, farm work, and pack animals.

Hungarian Warmblood
The Hungarian Warmblood or Hungarian Sport horse as it is also known was developed at the Mezohegyes State Stud in Hungary. Through selective crossing of native Hungarian horse breeds: Kisber Felver, Gidran, Furioso-North Star, and Nonius to established "warmblood sport horse " breeds such as Holsteiner, Hannoverian, and Dutch Warmblood. The Stud was able to produce a warmblood breed capable of all modern sport horse disciplines: dressage, show jumping, eventing, and combined driving.

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I - Horse Breeds

The Icelandic horse (and although they are pony height they are referred to as horses) all have tremendous stamina and strength. They are surefooted and have unusual gaits - in addition to walk, trot, canter, there is tölt (a four-beat running walk) and pace (a two-beat, very fast, lateral gait).

(Also Known As: Iomudskaya (Russian), Yamud (Iran))
The Iomud breed originates from ancient Turkmenian horses. It was developed by the Iomud tribe in the Tashauz oasis in southern Turkmenia. As the breed occupied the margin of the Turkmenian breed area, it was influenced by steppe breeds. During the 14th century, it was influenced by Arabian stallions. In contrast to the Akhal-Teke, the Iomud breed is kept in herds in the desert and semi-desert.

Irish Draught
Ireland's draught horse dates back to Norman times when imported horses were crossed with smaller native animals. Later crosses included Andalusian, to produce an allrounder, suitable for riding, pulling a trap or working on a small farm. Now renowned as a heavyweight hunter, and crossed with the thoroughbred to produce quality hunters and competition horses.

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J - Horse Breeds

The Jinzhou horse is found in Jin county, southern Liaodong peninsula in the Liaoning region of China. They are a riding and draft horse which is also kept for its meat and milk production. It has developed in 1926 from the local Mongolian type crossed with imported light and heavy horse breeds.

The Jutland is Denmark's own breed of heavy horse. Its ancestors have been bred on the Jutland peninsula since the middle ages and before. Selection for the breed as it appears today began around 1850. One of the greatest contributions to the success of the breed came from the stallion Oppenheim who was imported from England in 1862. Oppenheim was Shire and Suffolk. Six generations later the stallion Aldrup Menkedal, who is considered the foundation stallion of the breed, was born. Almost all Jutland breeding can now be traced back to Hovding and Prins af Jylland, two of his sons. 

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K - Horse Breeds

This is a native North Caucasian breed found mainly in the Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Republic and in the foothills area of Stavropol territory. In the process of its formation the Kabarda was influenced by many breeds - steppe horses, the Karabakh, the Persian and the Turkmenian. Kabarda horses are kept in taboons and transferred to mountain pastures in summer and to the foothills area in winter.

The Karabair is one of the most ancient breeds of Central Asia. Developed in Uzbekistan and northern Tajikistan the breed was established under the influence of southern and steppe breeds. It is well adapted to used under saddle and in harness. It has the typical build of a saddle and harness horse.

The Karabakh is an ancient mountain saddle breed. It was developed in Nagorny Karabakh in Azerbaijan between the Araks and Kura rivers.

This group of steppe horses was numerous as early as the 5th century B.C. Since then Kazakh horses were influenced by many breeds - Mongolian, Karabair, Arabian and Akhal-Teke. In the late 20th century, Kazakh horses have been improved by the Thoroughbred, Orlov Trotter and Don.

Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horse
The Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horse has been bred in the hills of Kentucky for over 200 years. This horse was never deemed special by its breeders, for it was bred for practical reasons only. Life was hard and families were large. The Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horse was used for a variety of tasks and was given little attention as to its care. The Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horse had to adapt to the environment and be a horse that was considered an easy keeper. Only the strongest and fittest survived and this served to make the breed a healthy, strong, and highly intelligent horse.

Kerry Bog Pony
The Kerry Bog Pony is quite small - almost like a Shetland Pony - about 10 or 11 hands high, with a distinctive dish or curved face. rather like an Arab. Breed colours are chestnut with black mane and tail or grey and also bay.

Kiger Mustang
For decades it was largely accepted that the Spanish bloodlines from which the Mustangs of the American west had descended were either lost or very diluted in the current day Mustangs. However, some people speculated that there might be isolated herds of horses which would still have a strong Spanish influence. In 1977, a herd of mustangs which appeared to be largely of Spanish descent were brought in from the remote and rugged Beaty Butte region in Lake County, Oregon. The animals were uniformly of a dun coloration, ranging from brown-dun to nearly white. All had dorsal stripes and zebra striped legs. Two subsequent groups were gathered from the same area and were equally uniform in size and color. The Kiger Mustang shows the classic Barb head and the right size with an average weight of between 700 and 800 pounds.

Kirdi Pony
The Kirdi Pony is found in the Logone river basin in southwest Chad and northern Cameroon. It is used primarily as a riding animal.

Kisber Felver

There are records of horses being raised systematically in the Kiso region of Nagano Prefecture as early as the 6th century. The region was able to produce, according to legends, 10,000 cavalry mounts for Kiso Yoshinaka’s army. There are today 117 Kiso horses, which are often seen in processions in local festivals. They are also used as riding horses.

Kladrubian or Kladruber by some also called the Kladruby Horse. The Old Kladrubian has common origin with the Lipizzaner in the Spanish - Italian ancestors, however in the Kladrubian the Italian branch is more dominant, containing the blood of the Alpine western horse, who already during the middle-ages was spreading to Italy and along the Apennines.

The Knabsturp are always spotted in color and, owing to their great stamina, are good all-round horses. The head is small and unusual and there is always sclera present around the eye.

The Konik, which means 'little horse' in Polish, is a breed of ancient descent found mainly in the lowland farm areas of Poland, East of the San river, and also in other parts of Eastern Europe, to where it has been exported. The Konik pony is mainly bred at the state stud of Jezewice and at Popielno, where it is selectively bred to maintain the breed characteristics.

(Also Known By: Kushumskaya (Russian), West Kazakh Saddle-Draft)
The Kushum breed was developed at Pytimarsk and Furman studs in Urals region of Kazakhstan from 1931 to 1976. The breed was developed largely from trotter, Thoroughbred, Don, Budyonny and Kazakh breeding.

The modern Kustanai is a massive horse combining the best characters of a saddler and the pronounced basic steppe lineage. Its features include a straight medium-sized head, wide jaws, medium-long and occasionally short poll; medium-long straight and low-set neck; wide and well-muscled, medium-high withers; straight, wide and short back; flat, solid and well-muscled loin; medium-long, occasionally short, nicely-rounded croup; long and high-set shoulders; wide and deep chest; correctly-set legs, well-developed joints, hard hoofs; strong tendons and ligaments; clean and hardy build. The Kustanai shows remarkable fitness in a continental climate. The measurements (in cm) of stallions at stud in 1980 were: height at withers 163, oblique body length 161, chest girth 188, cannon bone girth 20.3; mares: 160, 159, 189 and 19.2. Color: bay, chestnut, reddish-grey, brown.

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L - Horse Breeds

(Also Known As: Latviiskaya (Russian), Latviiskii upryazhnyi (Russian), Latvian Carrige, Latvian coach, Latvian Draft)
The Latvian breed was developed in Latvia from the beginning of the 20th century up to 1952 by crossing the native horses with west European harness and harness-saddle breeds. Oldenburg, Hanoverian and to a less extent Holstein stallions had most influence. Between 1921 and 1940, 65 Oldenburg stallions and 42 Oldenburg mares were imported from the Netherlands and Germany; they became the core of the breed. Besides the purebred Oldenburgs, Oldenburg crosses and Hanoverian, Norfolk Roadster, Ardennes and East Friesians were widely used. A special role in breed formation was played by the Okte stud in the Talsa region.

Lithuanian Heavy Draft
This breed was developed in Lithuania by crossing Zhumudka horses with the Swedish Ardennes. The third and fourth generation crossbreds (2nd and 3rd backcrosses) were bred inter se. The breeding began in the early 20th century and the breed was recognized in 1963. In 1964 there were 62,000 Lithuanian Heavy Drafts, in Lithuania.

Lipizzaner horses are one of the best known breeds in the world. The displays of the Spanish Riding School in Vienna (and on tour) are always popular. In the sixteenth century, Archduke Charles of Austria imported Andalusian stallions, the premier dressage horses, to cross with local mares at the Lipizza Stud.

The Lokai is bred in central and southern Tajikistan; it is classified as a saddle breed of Oriental lineage. The breed was developed by the Uzbek Lokai tribe through improvement of local medium-sized horses using various Central Asian breeds, such as the Iomud and, to a lesser extent, the Akhal-Teke and the Karabair. Subsequently it was influenced by Arabian stallions brought from Bukhara.

The Losino receives its name from the original area where it is bred, the Losa Valley, in the north of the province of Burgos (Spain). It is found to be related to other breeds derived from the Cantabrian-Pyrenean branch: the Portuguese Garrano, the Galician pony, the Asturian pony, the Thieldon, the Sorraia, the Navarre horse, the Basque Pottok, the Merens horse and the extinct Catalan horse.

This close relative of the Andalusian is best known as the mount of Portuguese bullfighters, although it originated as a cavalry horse. It is agile and very amenable to training.

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M - Horse Breeds

The Malopolski horse is found in southeastern Poland. It is a light riding and draft horse which originated since 1963 from the Lblin and Kielce breeds.

In 1812 Prince Pedro I presented a young stallion named SUBLIME to his friend, Gabriel Francisco Junqueira, Baron of Aldenas and owner of the Hacienda Campo Alegre near Belo Horizonte, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. SUBLIME was bred to native mares of Spanish Jennet and Barb blood, many of which were fast amblers. The get of these breedings were called "Sublime horses." Later, the Hacienda Mangalarga acquired stock from Campo Alegre and awakened interest in the horse among local ranchers. They quickly saw the advantages of the smooth, cadenced, and rhythmic gait, the "marcha", and the horses were soon known as "Mangalarga Marchadors."

The Marwari horse is native to the Marwar region of India, and its origins are entwined with local folklore. According to Shri Mahant Baba Balak Dasji Maharaj, the head Priest of the Monastery at Kalabar, and a breeder of Marwari horses, the breed can be traced to a period, "when the ocean was churned to extract nectar for the Gods...a period when horses had wings."

The M'Bayar is a pony breed found in the Baol region of Senegal. It is thought to have evolved from the Barb. The breed is found in either bay or chestnut. It was used with the Fleuve to develop the Fouta breed.

Mérens Pony
The Mérens Pony is native to the Ariège Pyrenees, having the name of a village in the high mountains close to Andorra. Paintings of horses strikingly similar to the Mèrens are found on the walls of the cave at Niaux. Gentle, hardy and economical, the Mèrens horse has long been a companion to the "Montagnol" (mountain farmer) and the soldier, notably with the armies of the Count of Foix Gaston Phoebus in the Middle Ages, and later Napoleon during the Russian campaign.

The Messara are found on the island of Crete off the coast of Greece. It is a light riding and draft horse and is almost extinct.

The American Miniature Horse Association's Standard of Perfection calls for a small, sound, well-balanced horse, possessing correct conformation characteristics. These horses are not dwarves, runts, or "genetic" errors, but are produced by selectively breeding down in size yet maintaining as near-perfect conformation as possible.

The Misaki originated in Japan. It inhabits the meadow of Cape Toi, or Toimisaki (misaki means "cape"), on the south side of Miyazaki Prefecture. Cape Toi is one of the best known and most important spots for tourism in Kyushu, and the Misaki ponies run wild in the area.

Missouri Fox Trotter
The Missouri Fox Trotter was developed in the Ozark hills by early settlers in the 19th century, famed for its durable riding for long distance ranch work. It soon became apparent that horse able to perform the easy, broken gait called the Fox Trot were the most useful in the rocky, forest covered hills of the Ozarks and selective breeding for the Fox Trot gait began.¹

The Miyako originated in Japan on the Miyako Island. It is used for riding and light draft.

The Mongolian horse is one of the most important and numerous breeds found among the indigenous horse breeds of China. They are distributed widely throughout the Northeast, North China and the Northwest, mainly in the high plains and highland areas. It is a dual-purpose horse, used primarily for riding and carting, but is also used for meat and milk production. The average wither height of males is 128 cm, females 127 cm, but body size varies with environmental conditions.

The myth that surrounds the Morab most often is their status as a breed. A lot of people misunderstand and consider a Morab a part-bred while others have termed them half-breeds. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Morabs (the get of an Arabian/Morgan breeding) are not half-Morgans or half-Arabian horses. They are Morabs, a breed. The fact that Morabs have the proven ability to transmit their distinguishing characteristics with a high degree of certainty to their progeny puts this misnomer to rest. Only foundation stock or first generation Morabs possess both Morab registration and 1/2 Arab or 1/2 Morgan registries. Thus making them a triple registered animal. Succeeding generations are then bred Morab to Morab to ensure the growth of the breed.

The Morgan horse comes from a single rough-coated colt known as Justin Morgan, named after his schoolteacher owner, and thought to have been bred from Dutch, Thoroughbred, or Arabian breeding lines.¹

Rex Moyle developed the Moyle as a light riding horse in Idaho during the mid-20th century from mustangs brought from Utah. They are usually bay or brown and often have frontal bosses or horns. They are rare.

A mustang is a small, hardy, naturalized (feral) horse of the North American west. Because of their hardiness, grace, speed, and independence, the name "Mustang" is popular for high-performance products and for sports mascots. The English word mustang comes from the Mexican Spanish word mestengo, itself derived from the Spanish mesteño, meaning cattle raised under the extensive system of the Mesta and strayed.

The Murgese is a light draft and riding horse similar to the Friesian. Found in the area of Murege, Apulia in Italy the breed is rare. Usually black but also seen in gray they originated from Oriental horses crossed with the local horses. The herdbook was established in 1926.

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N - Horse Breeds

National Show Horse
The overwhelming choice for this new breed was an animal that would combine the beauty, refinement and stamina of Arabian with the size and high-stepping motion of the American Saddlebred. With these two breeds as its cornerstone, the National Show Horse was born in 1981. During its history, the NSHR has taken steps to make possible the employment of a variety of combinations of these two basic bloodlines to produce a breed that continues to surpass its own standards, the always exciting National Show Horse.

New Forest Pony
There were wild horses in the New Forest at the time of Canute (c.995-1035) and the breed has been influenced by many others including the thoroughbred and the Arab. There are still 'wild' herds in the forest, although long used to human contact they are docile and friendly.

New Kirgiz
New Kirgiz horses are well adapted to highland conditions. They are used for stock work and meat and milk production. They are short-legged and massive and they have a strong constitution. In type and conformation they closely resemble Don horses.

Newfoundland Pony
The Newfoundland Pony has long been a proud part of Newfoundland culture and history. Early settlers brought from the British Isles Exmoor, Dartmoor, New Forest, Galloway, Welsh, Connemara and the odd Highlands ponies. These ponies, for nearly three centuries, interbred until one common pony developed "The Newfoundland Pony".

The smallest of Japanese local breeds is the Noma horse, native to the Noma region of Imabari in Ehime Prefecture. It is said that in the 17th century Lord Hisamatsu of Matsuyama Han charged local farmers with the breeding of horses. The smallest of these, the ancestors of the present breed, were particularly useful as packhorses on steep mountainsides and on remote islands. There are today 47 Noma horses being kept by several stud farms in the region. They are used as riding horses for children and as subjects of study in local schools.

Nooitgedacht Pony
The Nooitgedacht Pony is found in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa. It used for both riding and draft. The breed was developed during the 1950s from the Basuto Pony with some Boer and Arab blood at the Nooitgedacht Research Station near Ermelo. The breed is rare.

The Noric horse, also known as the Noriker, has been bred for approximately 2000 years in the alpine piedmount of Austria. The recent status and census of this rare domestic animal shows the serious position in conservational breeding.

This pony is easily trained, willing to work, energetic, and good tempered. The breed is relatively free of health problems and will often reach the age of thirty. Nordlands are also known for retaining their fertility into advanced ages.

The Northeastern is a light horse breed developed in northeastern Brazil beginning in the 16th century from Portuguese stock. The coloration of the horse is 40% dark bay, 25% gray, 15% isabella or light bay and 15% sorrel.

North Swedish Horse
Originating from Sweden, the North Swedish Horse is a heavy draft and farm workhorse. It is of the same origin as the Dole horse of Norway, which descended from the ancient Scandinavian native horse.

The North Swedish Horse is a medium sized coldblood. Mare usually reaches the height of 15 hands while the stallions are about 15.2 hands. The qualities that the North Swedish Horse possesses are energy, durability, stamina, and respectable longevity.

Norwegian Fjord
This unusual looking horse is believed to date back to prehistoric times and closely resembles the Asiatic wild horse seen in prehistoric cave paintings. Its history in a rugged, mountainous area of extreme weather conditions means it is exceptionally sure-footed and hardy.

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O - Horse Breeds

The Ob is a draft pony of the North Russian Pony group. The breed is found in western Siberia in Russia and is rare.

Germany's heaviest warmblood, it was based on the Fresian horse and developed as a coach horse. Later breeders introduced Thoroughbred, Cleveland Bay and Hanoverian blood and - more recently - further infusions of Thoroughbred and Selle Français have produced a finer horse more suitable for the competitive disciplines.

Orlov Trotter
One of the foremost trotting breeds, it was developed in Russia in the 18th century by Count Alexis Orlov. More recently crossed with imported Standardbreds to produce the Russian trotter.

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P - Horse Breeds

Decorated by nature, the origins of the Paint Horse in North America can be traced back to the two-toned horses introduced by the Spanish explorers, descendants of horses from North Africa and Asia Minor. Inevitably, some of these colorful equines escaped to create the wild herds of horses roaming the Great Plains. Captured and gentled, they raced alongside the vast herds of buffalo and traveled hundreds of miles on cattle drives. Cherished by the finest horsemen of the Western frontier, both Native Americans and cowboys sought the hardy horses loudly splashed with color.

The Palomino horse or "Golden Horse" is said to be once the choice of ancient emperors and kings, and has been made famous in cinema the world over as a favorite of cowboys.¹

(Also Known By: Mimoseano, Poconeano, Pantaneiro Criollo)
The Pantaneiro is found in northern Mato Grosso in Brazil. The normal distribution of colors within this breed is 45% gray, 17% bay, 13% black and white, 10% brown. The breed is well adapted to the temporary flood conditions that are found in the Pantanal region. The Pantaneiro is reported to be resistant to Equine Infectious Anemia. This resistance has made them the preferable mount in the swampy areas of their native region.

Paso Fino
The Paso Fino is one of the world's finest riding horses, originating from a mix of the Berber horse, Spanish Jennet and Andalusian. Columbus' second voyage to the New World introduced the first horses to the Dominican Republic and the conquistadors dispersed these lines throughout the continent.¹

The history of the Percheron remains unclear, but at two points in history the native horses of the Le Perche region of France were mated with Arab stallions. By the 17th century these horses had a widespread reputation that made them in demand for a number of uses, and in the 19th century it was the most popular horse among farmers and teamsters in the United States.¹

Peruvian Paso
The Paso owes its origins to Barb and Andalusian horses imported to South America by the Spaniards in the 15th and 16th centuries. Its unusual lateral gait with an outward arcing of the forelegs is thought to be inherited from the Spanish jennet. It gives a very smooth ride and the Paso can reach speeds of up to 15 mph over rough terrain.

Pindos Pony
The Pindos Pony is a variety of the Greek Pony found in the mountains of Epirus and Thessaly in Greece. It is a light riding and draft pony. The breed is rare.

The Pinia is found in western Peloponnese in Greece. A variety of the Greek Pony with Anglo-Arab, Anglo-Norman and Nonius breeding introduced early in the 20th century. The breed is seen in gray, blue roan, chestnut or bay. The herdbook was established in 1995. The breed is rare.

A Pintabian (pin-tay-bee-an) is a horse with over 99% Arabian blood and tobiano markings.

The Pinto horse is defined by color rather than genetic ancestry. Pintos have a dark background coloring and upon this color random patches of white. The Pinto was traditionally favored by American Indians as a war horse since its coloring provided natural camouflage.¹

Polish Konik
The Polish Konik is a riding and draft pony found throughout Poland. They are of the Konik type and are usually mouse gray with a dorsal stripe.

Pony of the Americas
In 1954, Les Boomhower was a Shetland pony breeder and a lawyer with his own practice in Mason City, Iowa. A neighbor offered Les an Arab/Appaloosa mare who had accidentally been bred to a Shetland stallion. She was due to foal that spring. Les waited until the foal was born before he bought the mare. The little colt born of this union was white with what looked like black paint smears all over his body.

(Also Known By: Basque, Vasca (Spanish))
The Pottok is an ancient breed of small horse found in the Basque region of Spain and France. Although originally wild, today all Pottok have owners. Traditionally they are gathered on the last Wednesday of January, branded for identification and either sold or returned to the hills as breeding stock.

This primitive horse (it has 66 chromozomes instead of 64) was thought to have been hunted to extinction by Mongolian tribesmen, until a small herd was discovered in 1881 on the edge of the Gobi Desert by the Russian Explorer, Col. N. Przewalski. It is still threatened with extinction, although it is found in many zoos.

Pyrenean Tarpan
The Pyrenean Tarpans are known by various names depending on the country, in France they were called Navarre Pony, in the Basque region as Pottok, in Poland they are the Konink breed type, in Spain, Asturian; Portugal they are known as Garrano. Each these breeds is highly regional but genetically they are extremely similar. The Pyrenean Tarpan are the result of a focused attempt to preserve the purest remaining animals of this type.

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Q - Horse Breeds

The Qatgani is a light riding horse found in Afghanistan.

The United Quarab Registry was developed in 1989 to promote the Quarter Horse-Arabian crossbred horse. The Painted Quarab Index was added in 1991 to include the colorful tobiano and overo patterns of the American Paint Horse.

Quarter Horse
Some historians have maintained that the Quarter Horse is the oldest breed in the United States, with the principle development being in the SW region. They originate from the " Chickasaws" horses of the American Indians which probably derived from Spanish imports. The Quarter Horse is so called because of its great speed at one quarter of a mile.¹

Quarter Pony
The Quarter Pony is a small scale replica of a Quarter Horse. Unlike the Quarter Horse, it may come in any color, or combination of colors. The Quarter pony has been around for many years, deriving from Quarter Horses not reaching the AQHA's minimum (14.2h) height requirement of the early years. Even though the AQHA's height requirement was later phased out, the quarter pony continued.

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Racking Horse
Legendary for its beauty, stamina, and calm disposition, the popularity of this noble animal grew strong on the great southern plantations before the Civil War. It was learned that the horse could be ridden comfortably for hours because of his smooth, natural gait.

Rocky Mountain Horse
Tradition has it that around the turn of the century a young horse appeared in eastern Kentucky that gave rise to a line of horses that has been prized and treasured in this part of the country ever since. The basic characteristics are of a medium-sized horse of gentle temperament with an easy ambling four beat gait. This gait made it the horse of choice on the farms and the rugged foothills of the Appalachians. It was a horse for all seasons. It could pull the plows in the small fields, work cattle, be ridden bareback by four children to the fishing hole, or to town comfortably on Saturday. They even performed well hitched to the buggy Sunday morning to go to church. Fancy barns and stalls were not necessary. Because of its cold blooded nature, it tolerated the winters in Kentucky with a minimum of shelter. For these reasons, in small groups, the breed was preserved, sustained and gradually increased in this area. Naturally, out crossing with the local horses did occur but the basic characteristics of a strong genetic line have continued.

Russian Don
This breed achieved fame in 1812 - 1814 when used by the military when the Cossacks fought the French. Most of the French horses were not able to cope with the cold and harsh winter conditions and died. But the Dons thrived in these conditions. The Don is named after the Steppes region of Russia where the Don river flows.

Russian Heavy Draft
Almost eliminated in the First World War, the Russian Heavy Draught has since been re-established as a breed. With their kind temperament and fast walking and trotting gait, these horses are popular riding animals.

Russian Trotter
Russian trotter breed was formed as a reproduction selection of Orlov and American trotter with a strict control of horses by a type and working quality. The work was started about 100 years ago. The Russian trotter as the new breed was registered in 1948.

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The American Saddle Horse gained fame as a breed during the Civil War, 1861-1865. Saddlebreds served as the mounts of many famous generals; Lee on Traveller, Grant on Cincinnati, Sherman rode Lexington, and Stonewall Jackson's mount was Little Sorrell. The three aforementioned horses were American type with close Thoroughbred crosses, and the latter was of pacing stock.

The Sanhe is found in the northeast of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and is used mainly for riding and carting. Sanhe means three rivers in Chinese which is descriptive of the basin forming this region in China. It has some of the best grassland found in China. The Sanhe breed is considered the most developed of the Chinese horse breeds.

Schleswiger Heavy Draft
The Schleswiger Heavy Draft originates from the north of Germany. It is of middle size and weight and was influenced by the introduction of the Jutland Heavy Draft and other heavy horse breeds. Until the sixties the Schleswiger served as a working horse. Nowadays it is on the list of the endangered domestic animal breeds from the society for the protection of old domestic animal breeds.

Schwarzwälder Fuchs
(Also Known By: Black Forest, Schwarzwälder Kaltblut, St. Märgener, Wälderpferd)
This horse originated in the Black Forest in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It´s a small, hardy draft horse which is suitable for the highlands with its long winters. It looks like a big Haflinger or a little Noriker. Selected for work in farming and forest in hilly regions. Nowadays it is also often used as coach horse and for riding. It is nimble and lively, has a good character, high fertility and is long-lived. The color, which is a part of the name, is mostly sorrel with light mane and tail, most popular is the dark silver dapple

Selle Francais
The French have had a long and admired history of horse breeding. Through one of their intensive breeding program has emerged one of the finest sport horses today, the Selle Français or French Saddle Horse. Like all warmbloods the Selle Français is a mix of breeds yet what sets it apart is the influence of crosses with trotting breeds.

Shagya Arabian
These attractive horses are mostly grey in colour and show a strong Arab influence with their concave profiles. Shagya Arabians are slightly heavier than their cousin the Arab but have the same lively, energetic temperament.

Shetland Pony
The Shetland Pony is probably the oldest breed in the UK, named after the inhospitable Shetland islands in the North of Scotland. For many centuries the Shetland Pony lived in the open, protected only by this thick hair and sturdy disposition.¹

The Shire breed is thought to be the survival of a medieval type known as the "Great Horse", probably originating in England. Its population size mirrored the need for cavalry in the historical battles of the British Isles. In later centuries, the Shire also proved its use in industry, and it became no less than a national treasure in the 19th century.¹

Single-Footing Horse
The North American Single-Footing Horse takes a unique place among the horse breeds of the world because it is developed, owned, bred, and judged by trail riders for the qualities pleasure trail, competition trail, working trail, and versatility owners need and want.

Skyros Pony
The Skyros Pony is a variety of the Greek Pony found throughout Greece. It is a light riding and draft pony found most usually in white, dun, bay or gray. The breed is nearly extinct.

Somali Pony
The Somali Pony originated in the east African country of Somalia. They are usually chestnut or gray. There are a number of varieties including Dor, Mijertinian, Daror and Nogali. The breed is rare.

The Sorraia horse has no history as a domestic breed, but is the last remnant of the indigenous wild horse of southern Iberia. It stands around 14 h.h. Captured animals have been broken to ride and used for herding the fighting bulls and other livestock. This small horse was the primary ancestor of the famous horses of Andalusia and Lusitania and, both directly and indirectly, ancestor to many horses throughout Europe and the Americas. The Sorraia is found portrayed faithfully in prehistoric cave art, displaying the classic Iberian convex profile, also found in the old-time North African Barb. The Portuguese scientist Ruy D' Andrade, who had discovered them in 1920 in the lowlands of the Portuguese River Sorraia, named these horses "Sorraia".

Soviet Heavy Draft
This breed was developed during the period from the '80s and the '90s of the last century up to 1952 when it was recognized as a new heavy Draft breed. The breeding zone was quite extensive, including Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Gorki, Penza, Ryazan, Tula, tambov, Voronezh and Orel regions and Mordovia. This was a zone with a developed industry and intensive agriculture, requiring strong and sufficiently fast horses of ample size. Success in the breeding of this type of horse was guaranteed by a stable supply of fodder.

Spanish Mustang
In the mid-1950's a group of dedicated men met to form an organization for the purpose of preserving the last of the true, old-type Spanish Mustangs, a breed that once roamed the western part of the United States in great numbers but was now threatened with extinction. The efforts of Robert E. Brislawn of Oshoto, Wyoming, were the primary moving force that brought this group together.

The Spanish-Barb traces its lineage through the Andalusian and Spanish Jennet horses brought to North America by the Spanish explorers during the 16th century. Both the Andalusian and the Jennet had evolved from the Barb horse of North Africa, which was brought to the Iberian Peninsula after the Moorish invasion of Spain in 711. In America, the Spanish-Barb was most prevalent in areas of Spanish settlement, in the Southeast and the Southwest. In the Southeast, the Spanish-Barb provided the foundation for both the Chickasaw and Choctaw Indian horses. Chickasaw blood would play a major role in the development of the American Quarter Horse. In the Southwest, they became the horse of the early Spanish and later Mexican cowboys, and went on to form the basis for the wild Mustang herds of the West. 

The rare and exclusive Spanish-Norman horse, the re-creation of the medieval knight's charger, is capturing the attention of horse enthusiasts across the United States and Canada. "The warhorse of the ages is the sporthorse of today."

Spotted Saddle Horse
Spotted horses have been popular with horseman since time immemorial. Prehistoric man scratched their likeness on the walls of caves and the American Indians, considered to be some of the world's greatest horsemen, selected spotted ponies as their war mounts.

The Standardbred is the fastest harness horse in the world, fueling the passion in the US for harness racing. The Standardbred eclipsed the old favorite of harness racing, the Morgan, by reducing the standard times for the mile by a full minute.

Sudan Country-Bred
The Sudan Country-Bred is a light righting horse which originated in the African country of Sudan. It was developed during the 20th century from crosses of Arab and Thoroughbred horses with the Dongola breed. It is found in the following colors: bay, brown, chestnut, roan, gray or black.

Suffolk Punch Horse
Developed as a farm horse around the 16th century, it was considered one of the best having great pulling power and being a very good 'doer'. Now more often seen pulling brewer's drays and at shows.

Swedish Warmblood
The Swedish Warmblood has been the subject of rigorous selective breeding to improve the stock. The horse has an attractive head with a long, well-formed neck.

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T - Horse Breeds

This breed developed in the steep and hilly country of Tsushima in Nagasaki Prefecture where horse breeding was known as early as the 8th century.

The Tarpan has been recently re-intorduced after becoming extinct in the 19th century. The Tarpan has a long face and convex profile, with long ears and a powerful, short neck.

The Tawleed was developed in the Khartoum region of Sudan as a riding horse. It was formed by upgrading Sudan Country-Bred horses with exotic breed, primarily Thoroughbred.

Tennessee Walking Horse
The Tennessee Walking Horse was created over 100 years ago by early settlers in the Middle Basin of Tennessee, by combining the traits of the Standardbreds, Morgans and Thoroughbreds. The most prominent characteristic of Tennessee Walkers is their "running walk". This gait is inherited and cannot be taught to a horse who does not possess it naturally.¹

This attractive Russian horse originates from the northern Caucasus and was based on Strelets horses, produced by crossing Arabs with quality Orlovs and Anglo-arabs. It is a modern breed, very similar in appearance to the Arab but taller.

The Thessalian is found in the region surrounding Thessaly in Greece. It is a light riding and draft breed improved since 1945 by crossing with Arab, Anglo-Arab and Lipitsa breeds. The breed is nearly extinct.

All Thoroughbred horses can trace their ancestry to three foundation sires - 2 Arabians and a Turk. The result was a horse that can carry heavy loads over long distances at a sustained speed - an important quality for early settlers. And so began a selective breeding process which has been going on for more than 250 years.¹

These horses which are today found in several natural parks in Kagoshima Prefecture are the descendents of two dozen native horses brought to Kyushu from Kikai Shima about 1890. The breed was bred on Tokara Island and at one time was quite numerous throughout the Kagoshima region. However, the numbers decreased drastically during World War II and the breed was preserved only by strenuous efforts.

This is an all-purpose utility breed. It was developed in Estonia at Tori stud from 1890 to 1950, by crossing native Estonian mares with European halfbred stallions. The breed was founded by the stallion Hetman, the son of Stewart and an unknown hunter mare. Stewart was a crossbred of a Norfolk Trotter and an Anglo-Norman mare.

The Trakehner was developed in the 18th century in what was East Prussia (Poland) from the Schwieken horse. Following the end of World War II, less than a thousand of these horse trekked west with refugees escaping the Russian invasion. These horses re-established the breed in Germany.

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U  - Horse Breeds

Ukrainian Saddle
This breed group was developed in the studs of the Ukraine since the war by crossing Hungarian mares (Nonius, Furioso-Northstar and Gidran) with Trakehner, Hanoverian and Thoroughbred stallions. Particular value was attached to individuals with a trace of Russian Saddle horse blood.

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V - Horse Breeds

The Vlaamperd was developed in South Africa as a draft and riding animal. It was formed primarily from the Friesian with infusions of Cape Harness, Hackney and Thoroughbred breeding. The breed is nearly extinct.

Vladimir Heavy Draft
This breed was developed in Ivanovo and Vladimir regions on the basis of large native horses through crossbreeding with various draft breeds, such as the Percheron and the Suffolk, and later with the Clydesdale and, to a lesser extent, with the Shire. The latter was in wide use only from 1919 through 1929. The aim was a horse of medium draft power or less which would have rather high speed. In the formation of the breed, a particular role was played for more than a hundred years by Gavrilovo-Posad breeding station, previously a stud farm and a state breeding stable. Its experts invested no small effort in the creation of horses of uniform type in the region. In 1946 the new heavy draft breed was recognized.

The Vyatka belongs to the North Russian Pony group. Its development was strongly influenced by the natural conditions in the territories of what are now Kriov and western Perm regions and in Udmurtia.

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W - Horse Breeds

As Australia developed rapidly with the exploration following the 1830's, knowledgeable horse breeders imported a steady stream of Thoroughbreds to improve the local horse strains. The use of Thoroughbred stallions over the condition-hardened local mares produced the beautiful strain of tough but stylish animal exemplified by today's Australian Stock Horse.

Welara Pony
The Welara is a new pony breed establish in 1981 by a group of ranchers in southern California. It resulted by crossing the Arabian horse and Welsh pony. Lady Wentworth was the first person known to breed this pony. She used the stallion Skowronek on mares imported from the Coed Coch Welsh stud farm in North Wales. This pony exhibits the best qualities of both the Arabian and Welsh breeds. Welara ponies are characterized by their beauty, gentle disposition, quick, eager intelligence, and versatility. If pure Arabs are too small to meet requirements for the Arabian stud book, then they are accepted.²

Welsh Pony and Cob
The Welsh pony originates in the hills of Wales, long before the Romans arrived. This inhospitable terrain produced a pony with an unusual strength of character, endurance and native intelligence. Only the most hardy of stock survived the semi-wild lifestyle, ensuring the modern breed is represented by excellent lines.¹

The original home of the Welsh Mountain pony was in the hills and valleys of Wales. He was there before the Romans. His lot was not an easy one. Winters were severe. Vegetation was sparse. Shelter, most often, was an isolated valley or a clump of bare trees. Yet the Welsh pony managed not only to survive, but to flourish.

West African Barb
The West African Barb is found in the western most regions of West Africa. It is a light horse used for both riding and as a draft animal. The predominate color is gray. The West African Barb originated from the Barb. Also Known By: Arab-Barb.

Western Sudan Pony
This breed is found in southern Darfur and southwestern Kordofan in Sudan. It is usually light bay, chestnut or grey with white markings. Also Known By: Darfur Pony, Gharkawi, Kordofani.

The Westphalian horse breed originates from the Westphalia, Germany. This area is known to have the last semi wild horses of Germany. Annually there is an auction to auction off the young stallions. Westphalia and Lower Saxony are the top breeding regions within Germany, with Westphalia having approximately 10,000 broodmares and 120 state stallions.

The Wielkopolski is a light riding and driving horse found in west-central Poland. The breed was developed in 1964 by combining the Mazury and Poznan breeds.²

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X - Horse Breeds

The Xilingol is found in central inner Mongolia. It is a light horse used for both riding and draft purposes. It was developed in the 1960's from Russian Thoroughbred, Akhal-Teke, Sanhe and Chinese Mongolian, later Kabarda and Don breeding were introduced.²

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Y - Horse Breeds

The Yakut was developed in Yakutia by unconscious and natural selection in the harsh conditions of northern and central Siberia, Russia.²

The Yanqi is found in north Xinjiang in China. This is a pony breed used for riding and as a draft animal. It was developed from the Mongolian with Don and Orlov Trotter breeding.²

Found in northwestern Xinjiang region of China, the Yili is a light riding and driving horse also used for meat and milk production. The Yili is of the Mongolian type and is usually chestnut, brown or black. They have originated since 1900 from Russian breeds crossing with the native Molgolian stock.²

The Yonaguni is a small native pony of the southwest islands of Japan. In 1996 there were about seventy-five living Yonaguni ponies on East and North Ranches on Yonaguni Island, located on the west side of the Yaeyama Islands.²

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Z - Horse Breeds

Zaniskari Pony
This breed is a riding and pack animal found in Leh, Ladakh in Kashmir found in northern India. The coloration of the breed is usually grey.²

This is a native Lithuanian breed of the forest type, known since the 16th century. Despite repeated crossing with various breeds, it has retained its type and suitability for work on small farms. Un demanding as regards management conditions and highly adaptable, the Zhemaichu has long been exported to western Europe.²

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¹ Animal Planet
² Oklahoma State University

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